Testicular Cancer Statistics 2018 Uk Football - Sports Predictions

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Testicular Cancer Statistics 2018 Uk Football

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Testicular Cancer, CancerIndex

testicular cancer statistics 2018 uk football

Testicular cancer is most common cancer in men between 15 to 35 years old. There are two broad types: seminoma and nonseminoma histologies. The nonseminoma group of cancers includes embryonal carcinoma, teratoma, yolk sac carcinoma and choriocarcinoma. The two testicles (or testis) produce sperm and male hormones. Men who have an undescended testicle (a testicle that didn't move down into the scrotum) are at higher risk of developing testicular cancer. World-wide about 36,000 men are diagnosed with testicular cancer each year.

Information Patients and the Public (19 links)

Testicular Cancer Treatment

National Cancer Institute

PDQ summaries are written and frequently updated by editorial boards of experts Further info.

Testicular Cancer

Cancer Research UK

CancerHelp information is examined by both expert and lay reviewers. Content is reviewed every 12 to 18 months. Further info.

Testicular Cancer

Content is peer reviewed and Cancer.Net has an Editorial Board of experts and advocates. Content is reviewed annually or as needed. Further info.

Testicular cancer

Macmillan Cancer Support

Content is developed by a team of information development nurses and content editors, and reviewed by health professionals. Further info.

Testicular cancer

NHS Choices information is quality assured by experts and content is reviewed at least every 2 years. Further info.

What Is Testicular Cancer?

Introduction to testicular cancer and discussion of treatment, with illustrative animations. Input from experts Prof. Jayanta Barua and Prof Tom Powels.

Testicular cancer

Discussion of testicular cancer by an expert, Dr Robert Huddart, plus personal experiences from two men who have had testicular cancer. Includes the importance of checking for early warning signs.

Ball Boys

A charity formed to raise awareness and educate the population on the issues of testicular cancer by associating with ball sports, and to provide access to resources, information and support to those concerned or directly affected by testicular cancer.

Interdisciplinary Working Group testicular tumors - Deutsch - Translate to English

Interdisziplinäre Arbeitsgruppe Hodentumoren

A group of doctors from all over Germany who have been concerned for many years with the diagnosis and treatment of testicular tumors. The Website includes information for patients and also for health professionals.

John Hartson Foundation

A charity founded in 2010 by footballer John Hartson to raise awareness of the signs and symptoms of testicular cancer. The site includes information about testicular cancer, self examination and seeking help.

Testicular Cancer

American Cancer Society

Testicular Cancer

Cancer Council NSW

Detailed information about testicular cancer, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment, risk, prevention and research.

Testicular cancer

The Everyman appeal was launched in 1997 to raise funds for prostate and testicular cancer research at The Institute of Cancer Research. The site includes information about testicular cancer and support.

Testicular cancer

A UK registered cancer charity to focus entirely on the male-specific cancers. The Website includes detailed information about testicular cancer.

Testicular Cancer Canada

An organisation founded to raise awareness about testicular cancer and support those affected by the disease. Includes details of self-examination.

Testicular Cancer Foundation

Prostate / Testicular Cancer Foundation

Information about testicular cancer, symptoms, treatment, news. There is also a telephone helpline number.

Testicular cancer statistics

Cancer Research UK

Statistics for the UK, including incidence, mortality, survival, risk factors and stats related to treatment and symptom relief.

yourprivates.org.uk

A Website by male cancer charity Orchid. Includes information and videos covering awareness, diagnosis, life-after and support for testicular cancer.

Information for Health Professionals / Researchers (10 links)
  • PubMed search for publications about Testicular Cancer - Limit search to: [Reviews]

PubMed Central search for free-access publications about Testicular Cancer

US National Library of Medicine

PubMed has over 22 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Constantly updated.

Testicular Cancer Treatment

National Cancer Institute

PDQ summaries are written and frequently updated by editorial boards of experts Further info.

Testicular Tumours

PatientUK content is peer reviewed. Content is reviewed by a team led by a Clinical Editor to reflect new or updated guidance and publications. Further info.

Testicular Cancer

Regularly updated and reviewed. Further info.

Search NHS Evidence for testicular cancer

Interdisciplinary Working Group testicular tumors - Deutsch - Translate to English

Interdisziplinäre Arbeitsgruppe Hodentumoren

A group of doctors from all over Germany who have been concerned for many years with the diagnosis and treatment of testicular tumors. The Website includes information for patients and also for health professionals.

SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Testis

SEER, National Cancer Institute

Overview and specific fact sheets on incidence and mortality, survival and stage, lifetime risk, and prevalence.

Testicular Cancer

Dr Tony Talebi discusses general concepts of Testicular Cancer with Dr Pasquale Benedetto, University of Miami.

Testicular Cancer

Oncolex - Oslo University Hospital (Norway) and MD Andersen (USA)

Detailed reference article covering etiology, histology, staging, metastatic patterns, symptoms, differential diagnoses, prognosis, treatment and follow-up.

Testicular cancer statistics

Cancer Research UK

Statistics for the UK, including incidence, mortality, survival, risk factors and stats related to treatment and symptom relief.

Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Cancer Death Risk Related to Radiation Exposure from Computed Tomography Scanning Among Testicular Cancer Patients.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Estimate effective doses were computed from CT scans of testicular cancer patients treated and followed-up in Turku University Hospital, South Western Finland. Association between effective doses from follow-up CT scans and radiation-induced cancer death was examined using United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2008 formula.

RESULTS: Mean effective dose per CT abdomen was 9.32 (standard deviation, SD 3.89) mSv and for whole-body CT it was 14.24 (SD 6.84) mSv. During follow-up of 6 years, the patients were estimated to undergo 12 to 14 abdominal/whole-body CTs and the corresponding risk estimates were 0.11 and 1.14, respectively. The risk of estimated radiation-induced cancer deaths (RICD in %) computed for mean effective doses was lower in patients diagnosed at older age, being 0.61 for 10-19 years age and 0.04 for 40-49 years age at the diagnosis.

CONCLUSION: Patient radiation exposure in CT imaging is associated with the type of CT device and imaging protocols, which should be periodically updated and reviewed to minimize individual exposure. Using the UNSCEAR modelling 2 % risk for radiation related cancer death was attributed to diagnostic exposure of study patients. Age at the diagnosis was associated with CT imaging related radiation exposure. The highest exposure was estimated to the youngest patients.

The immune infiltrate in prostate, bladder and testicular tumors: An old friend for new challenges.

Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome with concomitant seminoma and Sertoli cell adenoma: an unusual combination.

Sperm DNA Fragmentation Index and Hyaluronan Binding Ability in Men from Infertile Couples and Men with Testicular Germ Cell Tumor.

CONCLUSION: Long-term follow-up showed no difference in OS between TIP vs BEP as first-line therapy. Both regimens had mild toxicity.

Benign scrotal masses in children - some new lessons learned.

OBJECTIVE: To review outcome of benign testicular lumps in children managed at a tertiary pediatric center more than 7.5years.

METHODS: A retrospective review of pediatric benign testicular lesions from January 2008 to June 2015 was performed.

RESULTS: There were twelve benign intratesticular tumors. Of these, 11 were in pre-pubertal males; comprising four teratomas, two epidermoid cysts, one dermoid cyst, two cases of Leydig cell hyperplasia, one cystic dysplasia of the rete testis and one large simple intratesticular cyst. We illustrate a case of Leydig cell hyperplasia presenting with precocious puberty limited to the ipsilateral hemi-scrotum. TSS was attempted in all 11 pre-pubertal cases, but successfully performed in seven. TSS was possible for a large testicular cyst seemingly replacing the entire testis, with evidence that the testis reconstituted itself after surgery. Recurrence of an epidermoid cysts reported.

CONCLUSION: For the first time in the literature, this series reports Leydig cell hyperplasia presenting with ipsilateral hemi-scrotal changes of precocious puberty; shows evidence that the testis reconstitutes itself after TSS for a large cyst; and reports recurrence of an epidermoid cyst after TSS.

Endobronchial metastasis of mixed germ cell tumors: two cases.

Sertoli - Leydig cell tumor with retiform areas and overgrowth of rhabdomyosarcomatous elements: case report and literature review.

J Ovarian Res. 2016; 9(1):46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2018 Related Publications

CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a SLCT occurring in a 70 year old woman. Her presenting complaint was abdominal distension and pain. She had no signs of androgen or estrogen excess. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) and CT scan showed a multilocular adnexal tumor and level of CA 125 was raised. A complete cytoreduction was achieved with surgical procedure. Histopathological examination revealed moderately differentiated SLCT with retiform areas and owergrowth of heterologous component in form of embrional rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). She returned 7 months after the surgery with a large abdominal mass, ascites, right- sided hydronephrosis and massive pulmonary embolism. Due to the widespread disease and her poor general condition, she received only palliative care. She died 15 days after the admission. No autopsy was performed.

CONCLUSIONS: Due to the rarity of SLCTs, especially those with retiform areas and heterologous elements, their management remains challenging. There is no firm evidence that adjuvant chemotherapy is effective in improving survival in SLCTs with malignant heterologous elements. Further studies with a higher number of cases and a longer follow-up are needed to better predicting the prognosis and determine the role of chemotherapy in such cases.

Cabazitaxel overcomes cisplatin resistance in germ cell tumour cells.

METHODS: In vitro activity of paclitaxel and cabazitaxel was determined by proliferation assays, and mode of action of cabazitaxel was assessed by western blotting and two screening approaches, i.e. whole proteome analysis and a human apoptosis array.

RESULTS: Activity of paclitaxel and cabazitaxel was not affected by cisplatin resistance, suggesting that there is no cross-resistance between these agents in vitro. Cabazitaxel treatment showed a strong inhibitory effect on colony formation capacity. Cabazitaxel induced classical apoptosis in all cell lines, reflected by cleavage of PARP and caspase 3, without inducing specific changes in the cell cycle distribution. Using the proteomic and human apoptosis array screening approaches, differential regulation of several proteins, including members of the bcl-2 family, was found, giving first insights into the mode of action of cabazitaxel in GCT.

CONCLUSION: Cabazitaxel shows promising in vitro activity in GCT cells, independent of levels of cisplatin resistance.

CT restaging of testicular germ cell tumors: The incidence of isolated pelvic metastases.

METHODS: After receiving IRB approval for this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, medical records of 560 men (mean age 32.8) with 583 testicular germ cell tumors who underwent 3683 restaging CT scans of the abdomen and pelvis were reviewed to determine the proportion of patients with metastatic disease in the pelvis alone, as verified by histology or by resolution after therapy. Chi-square statistical analysis tested the association between factors currently thought to predispose patients to pelvic metastases. Patients were also categorized by clinical stage, tumor histology, and initial treatment.

RESULTS: Isolated pelvic metastases were detected in nine (1.6%) of 560 men. Neither bulky abdominal disease (p=0.85) nor extratesticular invasion by the primary tumor (p=0.37) were statistically significant in predicting which patients were more likely to have isolated pelvic metastases. Among the nine patients with isolated pelvic recurrence, only three (0.7%) of 408 men with no known pelvic disease at initial staging and no tumor marker elevation at restaging had isolated pelvic metastases. Isolated pelvic recurrence was not statistically different when analyzed by initial stage and treatment.

CONCLUSION: The incidence of isolated pelvic metastases in testicular germ cell tumors at restaging CT is low, but no group of patients was found to be without risk. Therefore, given the small, if any, risk of radiation-induced harm, the decision about whether to include routine pelvic CT in surveillance protocols should be individualized.

Video

Other articles

Cancer statistics - specific cancers - Statistics Explained

Cancer statistics - specific cancers

This article presents an overview of European Union (EU) statistics related to a selection of the most common types of cancer: colorectal cancer; trachea, bronchus and lung cancer (hereafter referred to simply as lung cancer); breast cancer; and prostate cancer. For each of these four types of cancer, an analysis is provided that focuses on cancer healthcare (in terms of the length of stay and the number of discharges) and deaths from cancer; there is also data on screenings for colorectal and breast cancer. An accompanying article provides an overview of statistics related to cancers in general.

This article is one of a set of statistical articles concerning health status in the EU which forms part of an online publication on health statistics.

(per 100 000 inhabitants)

Main statistical findings Lung cancer

Within the EU, lung cancer accounted for one fifth of all deaths from cancer

In 2014, more than a quarter of a million (272 thousand) people died from lung cancer in the EU-28, just over one fifth (20.1 %) of all deaths from cancer and 5.5 % of the total number of deaths — see Table 1. The share of all deaths attributed to lung cancer was 7.5 % among men, more than double the share (3.5 %) recorded for women.

Among the EU Member States, the share of the total number of deaths from lung cancer peaked in the Netherlands (7.5 %) and Denmark (7.4 %), in contrast to shares of less than 3.5 % in Latvia and Lithuania (both 3.4 %), as well as Bulgaria (3.2 %). The high share of total deaths from lung cancer in the Netherlands reflected the fact that this country ranked second for men and third for women (at 9.3 % and 5.8 %, respectively); the share of deaths from lung cancer among men was higher in Greece at 9.8 % and among women was higher in Ireland (6.1 %) and Denmark (6.9 %).

In 2014, the EU-28 standardised death rate for lung cancer was 54.4 per 100 000 inhabitants, higher than the rates for the three other types of cancer presented in this article. An analysis by gender and by age shows large differences in the standardised death rates for lung cancer: for men the rate was 85.0 per 100 000 inhabitants, some 2.7 times as high as for women (31.3 per 100 000 inhabitants), although there were signs of this gender gap narrowing in recent years. As is typical for cancers as a whole, the standardised death rate for lung cancer for persons aged 65 and over (198.2 per 100 000 inhabitants) was many times higher than it was for younger persons: for persons aged less than 65 the rate was 19.6 per 100 000 inhabitants.

Among the EU Member States, by far the highest standardised death rate for lung cancer in 2014 was recorded in Hungary (89.8 per 100 000 inhabitants), followed by Denmark, Poland and the Netherlands with rates within the range of 67-72 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants. Finland, Sweden, Cyprus and Portugal were the only Member States to record standardised death rates for lung cancer that were below 40.0 per 100 000 inhabitants; this pattern was also apparent in Liechtenstein. Sweden had by far the lowest standardised death rate among the EU Member States for males, at 42.1 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants in 2014, compared with the next lowest death rate which was 59.5 per 100 000 inhabitants in neighbouring Finland. For females the lowest standardised death rates for lung cancer were recorded in Latvia, Lithuania, Cyprus and Portugal (each below 15.0 per 100 000 inhabitants), with the lowest death rate in Malta (12.1 per 100 000 inhabitants).

More than 550 thousand in-patient discharges for lung cancer

Based on available data for EU Member States (2015 data except: 2014 data for Belgium; no recent data for Estonia, Greece or the Netherlands), there were 557 thousand discharges of lung cancer in-patients.

From Figure 1 it can be seen that the highest discharge rate for in-patients was in Hungary, where 287 in-patients per 100 000 inhabitants were discharged after diagnosis or treatment for lung cancer in 2015. In Austria and Germany, this rate was close to 250 discharges per 100 000 inhabitants. Elsewhere the rate ranged from around 50 discharges per 100 000 inhabitants in Cyprus and Portugal to 170 discharges per 100 000 inhabitants in Slovenia.

The average length of stay for lung cancer in-patients was typically 0.5 to 3 days longer than for all in-patients having been treated for neoplasms

Among the EU Member States for which data are available (see Figure 1), in 2015, the average length of stay for lung cancer in-patients ranged from less than 7.0 days in Denmark (2014 data), Romania, Cyprus and Bulgaria (where the lowest average stay was recorded at 3.7 days) to a peak of at least 12 days in Portugal and Malta. The average length of stay for lung cancer in-patients was typically longer than the average for all in-patients having been treated for neoplasms (whether malignant (cancer), in situ or benign): the difference rose to 3.0 extra days in Finland and Sweden, peaking at an extra 3.3 days in Malta. However, in Bulgaria, Cyprus and Germany the average length of stay for lung cancer in-patients was shorter than the average for all in-patients having been treated for neoplasms.

Colorectal cancer

Cyprus had the lowest share of deaths from colorectal cancer

In 2014, almost 153 000 people died from colorectal cancer in the EU-28, equivalent to 11.3 % of all deaths from cancer and 3.1 % of the total number of deaths from any cause — see Table 2. The share of deaths attributed to colorectal cancer was 3.4 % for men and 2.8 % for women, representing a much narrower range than observed for lung cancer.

Among the EU Member States, the share of the total number of deaths that were attributed to colorectal cancer peaked at 4.1 % in Croatia, falling to around half this share in Cyprus (2.0 %) with shares below 2.5 % also recorded in Lithuania, Romania, Finland, Bulgaria, Greece and Latvia; even lower shares were recorded in Turkey (1.8 % of all deaths) and particularly Liechtenstein (0.8 %) and Albania (0.5 %).

Among the EU Member States, Cyprus recorded the lowest share of deaths attributed to colorectal cancer for both males (2.4 %) and females (1.5 %). Croatia recorded the highest share for males, with 1 in 20 (5.0 %) male deaths attributed to colorectal cancer in 2014, ahead of Spain, Hungary and Slovenia, where the share of male deaths for colorectal cancer was 4.6 %. Slovakia recorded the highest share of female deaths for colorectal cancer (3.5 %), followed closely by Hungary (3.4 %), Croatia and Slovenia (both 3.3 %). For most Member States the share of deaths for colorectal cancer was higher for males than for females. However, in some of the Member States with relatively low overall shares of deaths from colorectal cancer there was almost no gender gap, with differences between the sexes negligible in Latvia and Estonia.

In 2014, the EU-28 standardised death rate for colorectal cancer was 30.5 per 100 000 inhabitants, which was slightly more than half the rate recorded for lung cancer. An analysis by sex shows some gender difference in the standardised death rates for colorectal cancer across the EU: for men the rate was 75 % higher than for women; these difference were nevertheless lower than those recorded for lung cancer.

As is typical for cancers as a whole, the standardised death rate for colorectal cancer for persons aged 65 and over was many times higher than it was for younger persons. When expressed as a ratio, the rate for persons aged 65 and over was 18 times as high as it was for younger persons, a higher ratio than for lung cancer (10 times as high) and also higher than the ratio for all cancers (13 times as high).

As with lung cancer, the highest standardised death rate for colorectal cancer among the EU Member States in 2014 was recorded in Hungary (55.0 per 100 000 inhabitants), followed by Croatia and Slovakia with rates around 50 per 100 000 inhabitants. Greece, Finland and Cyprus were the only Member States to record standardised death rates for colorectal cancer that were below 25.0 per 100 000 inhabitants; this pattern was repeated in Switzerland, Turkey and Liechtenstein.

Hungary recorded the highest standardised death rates for colorectal cancer among men and women in 2014, while Cyprus recorded the lowest rates for men and women. In all EU Member States, standardised death rates for colorectal cancer were higher among men than among women. The closest rates were in Sweden (where the rate for men was approximately one third higher than that for women), while in the United Kingdom, Denmark, the Netherlands, Finland and Belgium the rates for men were between 50 and 60 % higher than those for women. By contrast, in Lithuania and Croatia the rates for men were 2.2 times as high as those for women, a ratio that rose to 2.4 times as high in Luxembourg.

Based on available data for the EU Member States (2015 data except: 2014 data for Belgium; no recent data for Estonia, Greece or the Netherlands), there were just less than 600 thousand discharges of colorectal cancer in-patients.

Croatia reported the highest discharge rate for colorectal cancer

The highest discharge rate for colorectal cancer in-patients was in Croatia, where 282 in-patients per 100 000 inhabitants were discharged in 2015 (see Figure 2). In Hungary, Austria, Lithuania, Latvia and Germany, this rate was also in excess of 200 discharges per 100 000 inhabitants. The lowest discharge rates for colorectal cancer were reported for the United Kingdom and Ireland (69 and 61 discharges per 100 000 inhabitants respectively ).

In a majority of EU Member States, the average length of stay for colorectal cancer in-patients was more than two days longer than the average for all in-patients having been treated for neoplasms

In 2015, among the EU Member States for which data are available (see Figure 2), the average length of stay for colorectal cancer in-patients ranged from 6.6 days in Cyprus to 13.4 days in Italy. In most Member States, the average length of stay for colorectal cancer in-patients was more than two days longer than the average for all in-patients having been treated for neoplasms (whether malignant cancer, in situ or benign), with this difference rising to more than four days in the Czech Republic, France and Italy.

The indicator on colorectal screening presented in Figure 3 follows the Council recommendation and refers to the population aged 50 to 74 who reported having had a faecal occult blood test. The second wave of the European health interview survey (EHIS) was conducted between 2013 and 2015 and through this survey people were asked when they had most recently been screened for colorectal cancer. Germany and Austria had by far the highest proportion of their populations aged 50 to 74 having been screened for colorectal cancer, around four fifths. Apart from these two countries, a majority of respondents in Slovenia, the Czech Republic, France and Latvia also reported that they had been screened for colorectal cancer. However, in most EU Member States, as well as in Iceland, Norway and Turkey, only a minority of respondents aged 50 to 74 had ever been screened, the lowest proportions being registered in Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania (all below 10 %).

In a majority of participating EU Member States, more than half of the subset of people who had at some stage been screened reported that this screening had occurred within the previous two years, this share peaking at 85 % in France. By contrast, in Estonia, Poland and Hungary, less than two fifths of those people who had been screened reported that this had been within the previous two years. By contrast, a gender analysis for those people who had never been screened shows the strongest differences in Lithuania and Luxembourg: more men than women had never been screened in Lithuania while the reverse situation was observed in Luxembourg.

Breast cancer

In Ireland and Luxembourg, around 5 % of deaths among women were from breast cancer

In 2014, around 93.5 thousand people died from breast cancer in the EU-28, of which just less than one thousand were men and the vast majority (92.5 thousand) were women. As such, deaths from breast cancer made up around 6.9 % of all deaths from cancer; among women, breast cancer accounted for 15.5 % of all deaths from cancer.

Compared with all causes of deaths (not just those from cancer), breast cancer was the main cause of death for 1.9 % of all deaths in the EU-28 in 2014 (see Table 3); among women, breast cancer accounted for 3.7 % of all deaths. Across the EU Member States, the share of deaths from breast cancer (among women) reached 5.1 % in Ireland, 4.8 % in Luxembourg and 4.6 % in Malta, while this share was below 3.0 % in Romania, Bulgaria and Lithuania.

In 2014, the EU-28 standardised death rate for breast cancer was 32.6 per 100 000 inhabitants for women and 0.5 per 100 000 inhabitants for men. As is typical for cancers as a whole, the standardised death rate for breast cancer for persons aged 65 and over (66.4 per 100 000 inhabitants) was many times higher than it was for younger persons (7.2 per 100 000 inhabitants). Nevertheless, this age difference was somewhat narrower than for all malignant neoplasms in general: when expressed as a ratio, the standardised death rate for breast cancer among persons aged 65 and over was nine times as high as it was for younger persons, a lower ratio than for all cancers (13 times as high).

Among the EU Member States, the highest standardised death rate for breast cancer among women was recorded in Croatia (44.5 per 100 000 inhabitants), followed by Ireland where it also surpassed 40 per 100 000 inhabitants. Seven EU Member States recorded standardised death rates for breast cancer that were below 30 per 100 000 inhabitants: the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Sweden, Portugal, Finland and Cyprus, with the lowest rate recorded in Spain (23.7 per 100 000 inhabitants).

In 18 out of the 28 EU Member States, the standardised death rate for women for breast cancer in 2014 was higher than that for lung cancer; the gap was particularly large in Latvia and Malta. The most notable exceptions — with higher rates for lung cancer — were Denmark, Hungary, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Ireland, where the difference was at least 10 per 100 000 inhabitants.

Based on available data for the EU Member States (2015 data except: 2014 data for Belgium; no recent data for Estonia, Greece or the Netherlands), there were 527 thousand discharges of breast cancer in-patients.

Austria and Germany recorded the highest in-patient discharge rates for breast cancer

Figure 4 shows that the highest discharge rates for in-patients in 2015 were in Austria and Germany, where more than 200 in-patients per 100 000 inhabitants were discharged after diagnosis or treatment for breast cancer. In the remaining EU Member States the in-patient discharge rate for breast cancer was less than 200 discharges per 100 000 inhabitants, falling to below 100 discharges per 100 000 inhabitants in 13 Member States; Cyprus recorded the lowest rate, with 49 discharges per 100 000 inhabitants.

The average length of stay for breast cancer in-patients was longest in Lithuania and Germany

In 2015, among the 25 EU Member States for which data are available (see Figure 4), the average length of stay for breast cancer in-patients ranged from 2.6 days in Denmark (2014 data) to peaks of at least 10 days in Germany and Lithuania. A comparison with the average length of stay for all in-patients having been treated for neoplasms shows that in nearly all Member States the average length of stay for breast cancer in-patients was shorter. In Portugal, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom, breast cancer in-patients spent on average at least 4.0 days less as in-patients, while in a further five Member States — Sweden, Belgium (2014 data), Ireland, France and Malta — the average length of stay was more than 3.0 days shorter than for all in-patients having been treated for neoplasms. Only in three Member States was the average length of stay for breast cancer patients longer than the average stay for all in-patients having been treated for neoplasms; this was most notably the case in Lithuania, but was also apparent in Germany and Slovakia; in Bulgaria there was no difference in the average length of stay between breast cancer in-patients and all in-patients having been treated for neoplasms.

Breast cancer screening rates of 80 % or higher in Portugal and Finland

Most of the data presented in Figure 5 for breast cancer screening are administrative data from screening programmes although some are from surveys. The data generally show the proportion of women aged 50-69 years who had received a mammography within the previous two years. Overall, the rates are much higher than those reported for colorectal screening. Data are available for 24 EU Member States for 2014 (in some cases data are from 2012, 2013 or 2015): among these, screening rates were below 50 % in six, with a low of 6.4 % in Romania. The lowest screening rates were generally recorded among those Member States that joined the EU in 2004 or more recently, although Italy and France also had relatively low screening rates (within the range of 50-60 %). Portugal and Finland (2013 data) reported screening rates that were higher than 80 %, while at least three quarters of women aged 50-69 were screened for breast cancer in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Slovenia (all 2013 data) and Spain.

A comparison of data for the two years shown in Figure 5 indicates that breast cancer screening rates increased in half of the 22 EU Member States for which data are available, with particularly large increases observed in Latvia, Lithuania and the Czech Republic (comparisons for all three of these are based on 2009-2013). In the 11 Member States where screening rates fell between the two years shown, the reductions were generally relatively small, with the exception of the Netherlands, where the rate fell from 81.5 % to 63.8 % between 2009 and 2014.

Figure 6 indicates the availability of equipment solely intended for conducting mammographies. Relative to the size of population, this type of equipment was most widely available in Greece (2013 data) and Cyprus. Comparing the data presented in Figures 5 and 6, breast cancer screening rates in Portugal and Luxembourg appeared to be relatively high compared with the availability of mammography units, implying a higher average intensity of use or a greater use for screening of units other than ones solely for mammographies. By contrast, relatively low screening rates were observed in Cyprus and Bulgaria combined with a relatively high availability of mammography units.

Prostate cancer

In Sweden, the standardised death rate for prostate cancer for men was higher than the equivalent rate for lung cancer

In 2014, 74.0 thousand men died from prostate cancer in the EU-28 (see Table 4), equivalent to 5.5 % of all deaths from cancer and 1.5 % of the total number of deaths from any cause. As all of these deaths occurred among men, the share of male deaths attributed to prostate cancer was 3.0 %, double the share for the whole population.

Among the EU Member States, the share of all deaths among men that were attributed to prostate cancer was as low as 1.7 % in Bulgaria and Romania, but peaked at more than three times this share in Sweden (5.6 %).

In 2014, the EU-28 standardised death rate for prostate cancer was 39.6 per 100 000 male inhabitants, slightly lower than the equivalent rate for men for colorectal cancer (40.7 per 100 000 inhabitants). As is typical for cancers as a whole, the standardised death rate for prostate cancer for men aged 65 and over was many times higher than it was for younger men. When expressed as a ratio, the rate for men aged 65 and over was 73 times as high as it was for younger men, a much higher ratio than for all cancers (13 times as high), underlining the fact that this is a form of cancer that particularly affects older men.

Some of the highest standardised death rates for prostate cancer in 2014 were recorded across the Scandinavian and Baltic Member States, with peaks above 60.0 per 100 000 male inhabitants recorded for Sweden, Latvia and Estonia. Rates of less than half that level were reported by Luxembourg, Italy and Malta.

Despite the standardised death rate for men for prostate cancer in the EU-28 as a whole being slightly lower than the equivalent rate for men for colorectal cancer, in a small majority (16) of EU Member States the reverse was true: the standardised death rate for men for prostate cancer was higher than that for colorectal cancer. Sweden was the only EU Member State where the standardised death rate for men for prostate cancer was higher than the equivalent rate for men for lung cancer.

Based on available data for the EU Member States (2015 data except: 2014 data for Belgium and Spain; no recent data for Estonia, Greece, the Netherlands or Portugal), there were 271 thousand discharges of prostate cancer in-patients.

As with breast cancer, Austria and Germany reported the highest in-patient discharge rates for prostate cancer

The highest discharge rates for prostate cancer in-patients were in Austria and Germany, where more than 200 in-patients per 100 000 men were discharged in 2015 (see Figure 7). In nine of the EU Member States for which data are available, the discharge rate for prostate cancer was below 100 discharges per 100 000 men, dropping to less than 50 discharges per 100 men in Poland, Ireland, Cyprus and Malta (where the lowest rate was recorded, at 18.5 discharges per 100 000 men).

Compared with the average for all neoplasms, the average length of stay for prostate cancer in-patients was particularly long in Malta

In 2015, among the EU Member States for which data are available (see Figure 7 for availability), the average length of stay for male prostate cancer in-patients generally ranged from 5.7 days in Spain (2014 data) to 11.1 days in Germany, although Sweden (4.6 days) and Denmark (3.6 days; 2014 data) were below this range and Lithuania (12.7 days) and Malta (18.8 days) above it. The average length of stay for prostate cancer in-patients was quite similar to the average for all male in-patients having been treated for neoplasms (whether malignant cancer, in situ or benign): in most Member States the average stay for prostate cancer was less than three days longer or shorter than the average for all neoplasms. However, in Spain (2014 data) the average length of stay for prostate cancer in-patients was 3.2 days shorter, while in Lithuania and Malta the average lengths of stay were respectively 4.4 and 8.9 days longer.

Data sources and availability Key concepts

An in-patient is a patient who is formally admitted (or ‘hospitalised’) to an institution for treatment and/or care and stays for a minimum of one night or more than 24 hours in the hospital or other institution providing in-patient care. An in-patient or day care patient is discharged from hospital when formally released after a procedure or course of treatment (episode of care). A discharge may occur because of the finalisation of treatment, signing out against medical advice, transfer to another healthcare institution, or because of death.

The number of deaths from a particular cause of death can be expressed relative to the size of the population. A standardised (rather than crude) death rate can be compiled which is independent of the age and sex structure of a population: this is done as most causes of death vary significantly by age and according to sex and the standardisation facilitates comparisons of rates over time and between countries.

Causes of death

Statistics on causes of death provide information on mortality patterns, supplying information on developments over time in the underlying causes of death. This source is documented in more detail in this background article which provides information on the scope of the data, its legal basis, the methodology employed, as well as related concepts and definitions.

Causes of death are classified according to the European shortlist (86 causes), which is based on the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD). Chapter II of the ICD covers neoplasms, including (among others):

  • C15-C26 Malignant neoplasms of digestive organs, including (among others);
    • C18 Malignant neoplasm of colon;
    • C19 Malignant neoplasm of rectosigmoid junction;
    • C20 Malignant neoplasm of rectum;
    • C21 Malignant neoplasm of anus and anal canal;
  • C30-C39 Malignant neoplasms of respiratory and intrathoracic organs, including (among others);
    • C33–34 Malignant neoplasm of trachea, bronchus and lung;
    • C50-C50 Malignant neoplasm of breast;
  • C60–C63 Malignant neoplasms of male genital organs, including (among others);
    • C61 Malignant neoplasm of prostate.

For country specific notes on this data collection, please refer to this background information document.

Healthcare resources and activities

Statistics on healthcare resources (such as personnel and medical equipment) and healthcare activities (such as information on surgical operations, procedures and hospital discharges) are documented in this background article which provides information on the scope of the data, its legal basis, the methodology employed, as well as related concepts and definitions.

For hospital discharges and the length of stay in hospitals, the International Shortlist for Hospital Morbidity Tabulation (ISHMT) is used to classify data from 2000 onwards; Chapter II covers neoplasms and includes the following headings (among others):

  • Malignant neoplasm of colon, rectum and anus (0201);
  • Malignant neoplasms of trachea, bronchus and lung (0202);
  • Malignant neoplasm of breast (0204);
  • Malignant neoplasm of prostate (0207).

For country specific notes on this data collection, please refer to this background information document.

Self-reported data on screening for colorectal cancer (referring to the population aged 50 to 74 who reported having had a faecal occult blood test) come from the European health interview survey (EHIS) and are available for more than half of the EU Member States and for Turkey. This source is documented in more detail in this background article which provides information on the scope of the data, its legal basis, the methodology employed, as well as related concepts and definitions.

Data on screening for breast cancer (referring to the population aged 50 to 69) come from survey or programme-based data. This source is documented in more detail in this background article which provides information on the scope of the data, its legal basis, the methodology employed, as well as related concepts and definitions.

Note on tables: the symbol ':' is used to show where data are not available.

The most frequently occurring forms of cancer in the EU are colorectal, breast, prostate and lung cancers. Among men, lung cancer and colorectal cancer are the most frequent causes of death from cancer, while among women, breast cancer and lung cancer are the most common causes of death.

Primary prevention offers the most cost-effective, long-term strategy for reducing the burden of diseases in the EU; it involves tackling major health determinants, such as smoking, unhealthy diets and physical inactivity. The European Commission has supported many projects related to health determinants and health promotion in general.

Secondary prevention aims to reduce mortality by early detection of cancer through screening. In December 2003, a Council Recommendation on cancer screening was adopted, setting out principles of best practice in the early detection of cancer. This invited EU Member States to take common action to implement national population-based screening programmes for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer, with appropriate quality assurance at all levels. In September 2014, the European Commission adopted its second report on the implementation of the Council Recommendation noting that the number of adults surviving for at least five years after diagnosis has risen steadily over time across the EU, reflecting major advances in cancer management such as organised cancer screening programmes and improved treatments. This was followed in February 2017 by a more detailed report Against cancer: cancer screening in the European Union (2017).

Health status — selected diseases and related health problems

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